Friday, 29 November 2013

Methods Used for Harvesting and Delaying Ripening

Fruit ripening process involve the action of a group of chemical substances produced by plant itself, plant hormone. Chemist have synthesized compounds which function as the natural plant hormones do and have achieved some success in controlling the vital process of ripening of fruits and vegetables.
The chemicals may be broadly classified into those that: i) hasten and those that ii) Delay ripening.
They include all categories of plant hormones, absorbents waxes and other substances.
Except C2H4 action of each is generally indirect.
I) Chemicals that Hasten Ripening (Accelerate Ripening):
1) Ethylene and Ethylene Releasing Compounds:
A more important break through in C2H4 effects and physiology is the chemical synthesis of Ethephon because C2H4 is released from this compound. Thus all biological effects attribute to C2H4 gas are duplicated by aqueous solution of ethephon.
2,4 – Chlorophenythio triethyl amine hydrochloride (CEPTA) are also a ethylene releasing early in the season to obtain marketable fruit with premium price. In mangoes where in Anthracnose is a problem; ethephon treatment shortened the ripening period, giving no time for the development of Anthracnose in some citrus hastening chlorophyll degradation.
2) Abscisin:
Application of Abscisin accelerates senescence in detached fruits and leaves. ABA treatment of oranges resulted in accelerated breakdown of chlorophyll and increased synthesis of cartoenoids. Ripening of banana slice was also accelerated by ABA ( Vendrell 1970).
3) Ascorbic Acid and Hydroxyethyl Hydrozine (BOH):       
Ascorbic acid, Cu-EDTA ( Cupric ethylene diamine tetracetate) and BOH were found to include C2H4 formation , when sprayed before harvest.
4) Acetylene and Calcium Carbide:
Calcium carbide ( CaC2) treatment to enerate aletylene is also used to, hasten fruit ripening in banana and citrus.
Gas chromatographic analysis of the smoke from any burning material such as leaves, twigh or straw , showed that the active ingredients were C2H4 and acetylene is needed to obtain the same rate of Degreening by C2H4.
5) Alcohol:
It is reported that among the several alcohols, such as Ethanol, Hexanol, Octanol, Heptanol etc, used in dip treatment of green tomatoes prior to ripening. Hexanol immersion seemed to accelerate the ripening of the tomato fruit.
6) Fatty Acids:
Olerification has been known as a practise to hasten fig fruit maturation. Since the 3 rd century BC studies were conducted to elucidate the physiological mechanism of Olerification and applied various kinds of oils and related chemicals to the eye of fig fruit in a day or two, fruits treated with several vegetable oil began to increase in size reaching full colour and maturity within few days. By fatty acid oxidation in the cells of fruits acetaldehyde or C2H4 are derived which are volatile substance and hence induces enzymatic activities for early ripening.
II) Chemicals that Delay in Ripening:
1. Kinins and Kinetins:
 These chemicals were shown to delay chlorophyll degradation of leafy vegetables, spinach peppers, beans, cucumber and others. The growth effect is a retardation of yellowing by maintaining high protein level on the applied tissue.
2. Gibberellins:
Post harvest treatment of GA markedly retards ripening of tomatoes, guava and banana then effect on ripening was indicated by lowered respiratory rate retarded climacteric and delayed colour change.
Pre-harvest sprays of GA were shown by Kitagawa to have a striking effect in decreasing the rate of development, maturation ripening of Kaki fruits and lemons and navel organs because fruit will remain on the tree beyond normal maturity. Some of the effects feel firmness delayed accumulation of cartoenoids on ‘Navala orange’ higher TSS and Ascorbic acid in lemons. GA probably increase peroxidise and catalase activities.
3. Some Auxins (CIPA and NOA) :
Pre-harvest foliar application of CIPA at 25 ppm and NOA at 25 ppm delayed the physio-chemical deterioration of ‘Coorg’ mandarins in storage.
The improved marketable condition of treated fruits after storage was due to reduced weights loss and retention of Vitamin-C.
4. Growth Retardants ( MH and CCC):
MH: The effect of MH on the ripening process varies with different type of fruit and may depend on the application time and amount of chemical absorbed. Harvested mangoes dipped in 1000 and 2000 ppm, MH showed delayed ripening. Many studies have been reported on the inhibitory action of MH in storage sprouting of onions, radish, sugar beet, turnips, carrot and potatoes.
CCC: Shelf life lettuce was duffled and deterioration in quality of broccoli heads and Aspragous spare was retarded by immersion of the cut stem bases of dipping the vegetables in solution of CCC.
5. Metabolic Inhibitors:
Cycloheximide and Actimomycin –D:
Flesh softening, chlorophyll degradation and C2H4 synthesis were severely inhibited by cylocheximids treatment. When Cycloheximide was applied to fruits that had begun to ripen, ripening proceeded at a reduced rate, similar effects on ripening were also observed on pre-climacteric fruit treated with Actinomycin-D, C2H4, did not reverse the complete inhibition of ripening imposed by Actinomycin-D.     

 6. Vitamin-K:
Vitamin K and Vitamin K3 has fun demonstration to inhibit ripening in banana at temperature as high as 140F.
7. Maleic Acid:
Maleic Acid in any acetate retarded to the ripening of Jarnaica, Banana, Pineapples, Citrus, and others but it is of transient effect.
8. Ethylene Oxide:
Mangoes treated with ethylene oxide also show a definite delay in ripening. Ethylene oxide may be an endogenous metabolic antagonist of C2H4.
9. Na-DHA (Sodium Dehydro Acetic Acid) :
In strawberry, it is found to delay the ripening and reduced rate of respiration.
10: Carbon Monoxide:
In mushroom used to extend storage life four fold.
11. Ethylene Absorbents:
Waxing, low O2, High CO2, and ripening inhibitors are sometimes combined to prolong storage life. Though endogenous C2H4 is always a problem. Banana is packed in film bag containing KmnO4 ( to absorb C2H4). A commercial preparation of this absorbent called “Purafil”. Alkaline KMnO4 on a silicate barrier proved effective in the complete absorption of C2H4 from Bananas held in sealed Polythene bags.

Respiration and Transpiration in Relation to Harvesting, Packing, Transportation and Storage

Most of the physio-chemical changes occurring in harvested fruits are related to oxidative metabolism including respiration. Bio- physiological disorders storage life, maturity commodity handling and many post harvest treatment, because of the vast scope of respiration, the rate of respiration is good index. Respiration is usually associated with a short storage life deteriorating in quality and in good value.
Naturally, as the fruit increase in size the total amounts of CO2 emitted by the fruit increase also, but as the fruit becomes bulky the respiration rate decreases continuously for climacteric fruits, the rate is minimum at maturity and remains rather constant, even other harvest non-climacteric fruits ripen on the tree. If they are removed sooner the rate of respiration slowly, dwindles. Small potatoes will have a higher respiration rate then larger one. As in transpiration surface phenomenon may be invoked. Small sized tissues have a larger surface area exposed to the atmosphere hence more oxygene can diffuse in.
Between 32 and 95 0F the respiration rate of 2 to 2.5 for every 18 0F in temperature, suggesting that both biological and chemical process are effected, Application of C2 H4 significantly affects the time scale required to reach the climacteric peace and immediate rise in respiration occurs after C2H4 application. Rate of respiration of carrots and antichoke, increases with an increasing supply of oxygene
Proper Carbon dioxide concentration prolongs the storage life of fruit and vegetable due to respiratory inhibitors. The effect o G.R vary with different tissue and depend on the time of application and the absorbed by the plant Sapota fruits have a higher respiration rate with a pre-harvest spray of 1000ppm MH.
Respiration Drift:
Many tropical fruits and vegetables exhibit a rapid increase in respiration during ripening. These are conventionally called climacteric fruits and vegetables. A rapid increase in respiration during ripening fruits showing no such respiratory pattern is non climacteric. The world “Climacteric” was coined by kind and West (1925). However, many of the so called non climacteric fruits show a rise in respiration rate with a con-comitontrise in C2 H4 Production.  
Rhodes (1970) postulated that the respiratory drift typical of non climacteric fruits might be displayed at a more appropriate physiological age of under more appropriate storage condition.
Another important criterion for distinguishing a climacteric fruit from a non-climacteric fruit on is the response to C2H4 application. A non climacteric fruit will react to C2H4 treatment at any stage of its pre-harvest of post harvest life. Whereas, a climacteric fruit will exhibit a respiratory response only if the C2H4 is applied during pre-climacteric stage and becomes insensitive to C2H4 treatment after the onset of the climacteric rise.
Iwata et al. (1969) proposed three types of respiratory pattern of harvested fruits. These are:
a. The Gradual Decrease Type:
In this type the respiratory rate gradually decrease through ripening process. E.g. Citrus fruit.
b. The Temporary Rise Type:
In this type the respiratory rate increase temporarily and full ripeness occurs after peak respiration of tomato, banana, mango, avocado, etc.
c. The Late Peak Type:
In this type the maximum rate of respiration is shown from full ripe to over ripe stage of Japanese persimmon, Strawberry, Peach, etc.
Respiration is a process wherein, stored food material is broken down by oxidation releasing CO2, H2O and energy in from of heat.
Fruits can be climacteric or non-climacteric depending upon the presence or absence of occurrence of peak in CO2 production during ripening. The rate of respiration and intensity of respiration are important factors for storage. By decreasing this two storage life can be enhanced.
Transpiration is the loss of moisture from the fruit surface resulting in shriveling of the produce.
Factors Affecting Respiration and Transpiration:
Various factors affect these two process i.e Respiration and Transpiration
i) Temperature
ii) Humidity
iii) Nature of skin
iv) Maturity
v) Surface area of fruits/ vegetables
vi) Nature of surface coating
vii) Mechanical damage.
In respiratory metabolic pathway three phases occurs:
Breakdown of polysaccharides into simple sugars. Oxidation to surpass to pyruvic acid. Aerobic transformation of pyruvates and other organic acids into CO2 H2O and energy. Proteins and fats also serve as substrates in this breakdown process. During this process different kinds of products are formed.
R.Q: It is the ratio of CO2 released and O2 intake. It is useful to determine the nature of the substance used in respiration completing the respiratory reactions indicates degree of aerobic acid and anaerobic process.
R.Q: It is an average value of substrate respiratory contribution. It is relative contents of C2H and O2. Generally, if RQ is 1 surpars are metabolized.

Friday, 22 November 2013

Maturity Signs and Harvesting of Tomato and Chilli

Maturity Signs of Tomato:
1. Harvesting depends upon the purpose for which they are used. Four maturity stages are generally recognized.
a. Green stage: The mature green fruits are generally harvested to send them to the distant market.
b. Pink Stage: At this stage colour turns to pink or red at the blossom end. They are picked for local market.
c. Ripe stage: At this stage surface of the most of the fruits is red and the soften of fruits begins.
d. Fully Ripe: At this stage fruits have approached maximum colour development and are soft. Starch is charged into sugars. They are generally consumed or used for canning and processing.
Harvesting of Tomato:
Depending upon the purpose for which they are used and market distance, tomatoes are harvested manually by plucking the fruits at different maturity stages.
Maturity Sings of Chilli:
1. Chillies are harvested at two stages, one for green vegetables and the other as dry chillies.
2. Green Chillies are harvested when they are fully mature and before they change from green to red.
3. Chillies for drying should be harvested when colour changes from green to red.
Harvesting of Chilli:
Depending upon the purpose for which chillies are to be used, fruits are picked either green or fully red ripe.

Maturity Signs and Harvesting of Bell Pepper

Maturity Signs of Bell Pepper:
1. Generally bell peppers are harvested in the mature green stage. They should be of good shape, waxy, firm and shiny.
2. Peppers for canning are allowed to attain full size and develop a red colour before harvesting.
Harvesting of Bell Pepper:
The sweet peppers are picked with an upward twist which leaves a piece of stem attached.

Maturity Signs and Harvesting of Bhendi and Pea

Maturity Sings of Bhendi:
1. Fruits are harvested when the pods are still mature, young and tender. They are harvested at an interval of 2 to 3 days.
2. The best time of harvest being 6 to 7 days after opening of flower.
3. Mature pods are fibrous, tough, and unit for human consumption.
Harvesting of Bhendi:
The tender young fruits 7 to 10 cm long should be harvested every alternate day. Frequent picking promote fruit development and enhances yield.
Maturity Signs of Pea:
1. Early varieties require 45 to 60 days and late varieties require 70 to 100 days from sowing.
2. Peas must be picked up at the proper stage of maturity , because they start loosing their rapidly after reaching the edible stage.
3. Quality depends upon sugar content and tenderness. With increasing maturity and size , sugar content declines rapidly, with a correspondence increase in starch and protein.
4. High sugar content is indication of high quality.
5. Harvest the pods when colour of pods changes from dark green to light green with good size.
Harvesting of Pea:
The pods should be harvested at proper maturity by picking at an interval of 12 to 15 days. Picking daily will injure the plant.

Maturity Signs and Harvesting of Potato and Cucumber

Maturity Sings of Potato:
1. Potatoes are harvested when they attain sufficient size. Early varieties 57 to 100 days, late varieties 120- 160 days.
2. Skin slipping from the tuber, starch content and leaf senescence or top drying are the harvest indices.
Harvesting of Potato:
Care should be taken to save the tuber from injury and immediately after harvest they should be left in the scorching sun. otherwise they develop sunscalds. Digging is done with spade or other hand tool. Suitable tractor operated potato diggers have been developed now. There should be optimum moisture in the soil at the time of harvest.
Maturity Sings of Cucumber:
1. Fruits are ready for harvest 45 to 55 days after sowing.
2. Harvest immature fruits.
3. In cucumber the proper stage of maturity is judged by size and not by the age of the fruit.
4. Cucumber for slicing should be picked when they are 15 to 35 cm long, whereas for pickling 6 to 15 cm long. In case of slices at marketable stage, spines on fruit becomes soft and fall down.
5. In general cucumber may be picked at any stage of fruit growth, provided yellowish has not started.
Harvesting of Cucumber:
The fruit should be picked at frequent intervals in order to avoid losses due to over sized or over mature fruits. They are generally picked at 2 to 4 days intervals depending on weather.
Original Article Here

Maturity Signs and Harvesting of Water Melon and Muskmelon

Maturity Signs of Water Melon:
1. Size of the fruits and colour of the rind are not good indicators.
2. Fruits are ready for harvest in 90 to 120 days from sowing.
3. Four criteria are commonly used in determining the maturity of the fruits:
a) Withering of tendril: The tendril accompanying the fruit withers as fruit ripeness.
b) Thumping: Ripe fruits when thumped with finger give out heavy dull sound, whereas the immature fruits give metallic sound.
c) The portion of fruit, which rests on the ground, turned yellowing at maturity.
d) Ripe fruits produce a crisp, cracking noise on being pressed with the flat of the hand.
Harvesting of Water Melon:
The well mature fruits are harvested manually with the help of sharp knife or by twisting.
Maturity Signs of Muskmelon:
1. Fruits will be ready for picking in about 110 days depending upon variety. There are two groups of cultivars which behave distinctly. In one group, the fruits when mature slips out easily from the vine with little pressure or jerk or if not it will remain separated from the vine next day. This is called full slip stage. In some Indian cultivars, green stripes on the skin begin to turn yellow during maturity.
Harvesting of Muskmelon:
Muskmelon is a climacteric fruit which ripens during transit and storage and hence, it is harvested before it is fully ripe.

Maturity Signs and Harvesting of Red Pumpkin and Gourds

Maturity Sings of Red Pumpkin:
1. Fruits require 110 to 120 days for maturity from sowing.
2. Fruits should be harvested at full stage of maturity when the rind has hardened.
3. Colour changes from green to yellow or orange. Some varieties remain green only after full maturity.
Harvesting of Red Pumpkin:
The fruits are harvested manually by keeping a portion of stem attached. The fruits are placed in heap and allowed to cure for a few days.
Maturity Signs of Gourds:
1. Tender fruits are harvested.
2. Proper stage of maturity in bottle gourd, sponge gourd and ridge is judged by
a) Its fruit size
b) The gentle press of finger nails which easily penetrate the epidermis.
c) Plugging the fruits which show fine tender flesh and quite immature seeds. However, this test makes the fruit unfit for market.
3. In most cases fruits require 12 to 15 days after pollination to attain marketable size.
Harvesting of Gourds:
Harvesting is done at short intervals. The fruits are harvested manually by keeping a portion of stem attached.
Source : agriinfoa

Maturity Signs and Harvesting of Sweet Potato

Maturity Sings of Sweet Potato:
1. They are harvested 3.5 to 4 months after planting.
2. Leaves start yellowing
3. After cutting the tuber if white gum remains white, then they are ready for harvest , it it turns blackish on green then tubers are said to be immature.
Harvesting of Sweet Potato:
The crop is harvested by digging with spade or kudali.

Maturity Signs and Harvesting of Leafy Vegetables ( Spinach, Amaranthus and Fenugreek)

Maturity Signs:
1. They are harvested 3 to 4 weeks after sowing,
2. Harvesting should be done, when the leaves are immature and tender, but large enough.
3. Old leaves are bitter and unfit for consumption.
First cutting 3 to 4 weeks after sowing. Leaves are cut manually from the base. It gives 3 to 4 pickings at 15 days interval.
Uprooting is done 3-4 weeks after sowing. If clippings are to be taken then first clipping 25 to 30 days after sowing and other at 20 to 25 days interval. Total 2-4 clippings.
When common methi is taken, the younger shoots are nipped off in about 3 weeks after sowing. Later on the whole plant is often pulled out, bunched and marketed. The kasuri methi gives a number of cutting. First cutting 25-30 days after sowing.
Subsequent cuttings taken at 12 to 15 days interval. After 2-3 cuttings plants are left for seeding.

Bees Boost Irish Economy

Researchers from Trinity College Dublin have shown that bees contribute almost €4 million to the Irish economy each year, simply by improving seed production in crops of oilseed rape.

Known for its brilliant yellow flowers, oilseed rape is being grown to an increasing extent in Ireland as farmers respond to a heightened demand for pure plant oil. This oil is an important source of biofuel and could ultimately reduce our reliance on non-renewable fossil fuels as we seek greener, more environmentally friendly solutions to energy demands.

The crop is pollinated adequately by the wind, but, for the first time in Ireland, researchers were able to show that foraging bees transferring pollen from flower to flower greatly boost the all-important yield. When bees were experimentally excluded from visiting the flowers, seed production was, on average, 27% lower than when they had open access.

This discovery, which will soon appear in the international Journal of Insect Conservation, added to related findings that were reported in another article in the journal GCB Bioenergy. Both papers sprang from research conducted as part of the Sectoral Impacts on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (SIMBIOSYS) initiative, which received €1.6 million in funding from the Environmental Protection Agency over a five-year period.

In addition to the discovery that bees are important assets to oilseed rape farmers, the previous paper showed that these fields were buzzing with insect life comprising many species of bees, hoverflies and beetles.

Associate Professor in Botany at Trinity, and Director of the Trinity Centre for Biodiversity Research, Jane Stout, who was the principal investigator on both papers said: “Oilseed rape fields are full of pollinators, including honeybees, bumblebees, solitary bees and hoverflies. Although many people think of the honeybee as being our main pollinating species, bumblebees and hoverflies are also important pollinators of oilseed rape crops. We found hundreds of bees, especially in spring oilseed rape, where we estimated on average 600-800 colonies of bumblebees alone using the pollen and nectar from just one field.”

The diversity and sheer volume of pollinators in oilseed rape crops came as something of a happy surprise, because some reports had previously suggested that swathes of the plant might discourage farm-friendly insects. However, researchers caution that different patterns could arise when the crop is grown on a larger scale than was investigated. They also recommend interspersing fields that grow food and biofuel crops in the hope that such a patchwork quilt-like pattern will promote insect diversity and enhance the precious pollination service provided by the critters.

Researcher Dara Stanley, who worked with Stout on these projects, added: "Oilseed rape crops in Ireland are expanding hugely, and, if they benefit from pollination, this is both good news for farmers, and an incentive to conserve bees in agricultural areas.”

One major threat to bees comes from the use of certain pesticides called neo-nicotinoids, which have been implicated in recent declines of many species throughout Europe and North America. An EU ban preventing the use of these pesticides on oilseed rape was recently agreed, which will hopefully help the bees of Ireland keep up their good work in our farmers’ fields. However, there are concerns that use on other crops, which is still permitted, will negatively affect our furry friends.

Thursday, 21 November 2013

10000 times stronger killer of CANCER than Chemo


"10000 times stronger killer of CANCER than Chemo".. do share it.. can save many lives, fill up hopes and build confidence in the patients...

The Sour Sop or the fruit from the graviola tree is a miraculous natural cancer cell killer 10,000 times stronger than Chemo.

Why are we not aware of this? Its because some big corporation want to make back their money spent on years of research by trying to make a synthetic version of it for sale.

So, since you know it now you can help a friend in need by letting him know or just drink some sour sop juice yourself as prevention from time to time. The taste is not bad after all. It’s completely natural and definitely has no side effects. If you have the space, plant one in your garden.
The other parts of the tree are also useful.

The next time you have a fruit juice, ask for a sour sop.

How many people died in vain while this billion-dollar drug maker concealed the secret of the miraculous Graviola tree?

This tree is low and is called graviola ! in Brazi l, guanabana in Spanish and has the uninspiring name “soursop” in English. The fruit is very large and the subacid sweet white pulp is eaten out of hand or, more commonly, used to make fruit drinks, sherbets and such.

The principal interest in this plant is because of its strong anti-cancer effects. Although it is effective for a number of medical conditions, it is its anti tumor effect that is of most interest. This plant is a proven cancer remedy for cancers of all types.

Besides being a cancer remedy, graviola is a broad spectrum antimicrobial agent for both bacterial and fungal infections, is effective against internal parasites and worms, lowers high blood pressure and is used for depression, stress and nervous disorders.

If there ever was a single example that makes it dramatically clear why the existence of Health Sciences Institute is so vital to Americans like you, it’s the incredible story behind the Graviola tree..

The truth is stunningly simple: Deep within the Amazon Rainforest grows a tree that could literally revolutionize what you, your doctor, and the rest of the world thinks about cancer treatment and chances of survival. The future has never looked more promising.

Research shows that with extracts from this miraculous tree it now may be possible to:
* Attack cancer safely and effectively with an all-natural therapy that does not cause extreme nausea, weight loss and hair loss
* Protect your immune system and avoid deadly infections
* Feel stronger and healthier throughout the course of the treatment
* Boost your energy and improve your outlook on life

The source of this information is just as stunning: It comes from one of America ‘s largest drug manufacturers, th! e fruit of over 20 laboratory tests conducted since the 1970's! What those tests revealed was nothing short of mind numbing… Extracts from the tree were shown to:

* Effectively target and kill malignant cells in 12 types of cancer, including colon, breast, prostate, lung and pancreatic cancer..
* The tree compounds proved to be up to 10,000 times stronger in slowing the growth of cancer cells than Adriamycin, a commonly used chemotherapeutic drug!
* What’s more, unlike chemotherapy, the compound extracted from the Graviola tree selectivelyhunts
down and kills only cancer cells.. It does not harm healthy cells!

The amazing anti-cancer properties of the Graviola tree have been extensively researched–so why haven’t you heard anything about it? If Graviola extract is

One of America ‘s biggest billion-dollar drug makers began a search for a cancer cure and their research centered on Graviola, a legendary healing tree from the Amazon Rainforest.

Various parts of the Graviola tree–including the bark, leaves, roots, fruit and fruit-seeds–have been used for centuries by medicine men and native Indi! ans in S outh America to treat heart disease, asthma, liver problems and arthritis. Going on very little documented scientific evidence, the company poured money and resources into testing the tree’s anti-cancerous properties–and were shocked by the results. Graviola proved itself to be a cancer-killing dynamo.
But that’s where the Graviola story nearly ended.

The company had one huge problem with the Graviola tree–it’s completely natural, and so, under federal law, not patentable. There’s no way to make serious profits from it.

It turns out the drug company invested nearly seven years trying to synthesize two of the Graviola tree’s most powerful anti-cancer ingredients. If they could isolate and produce man-made clones of what makes the Graviola so potent, they’d be able to patent it and make their money back. Alas, they hit a brick wall. The original simply could not be replicated. There was no way the company could protect its profits–or even make back the millions it poured into research.

As the dream of huge profits evaporated, their testing on Graviola came to a screeching halt. Even worse, the company shelved the entire project and chose not to publish the findings of its research!

Luckily, however, there was one scientist from the Graviola research team whose conscience wouldn’t let him see such atrocity committed. Risking his career, he contacted a company that’s dedicated to harvesting medical plants from the Amazon Rainforest and blew the whistle.

Miracle unleashed
When researchers at the Health Sciences Institute were alerted to the news of Graviola,! they be gan tracking the research done on the cancer-killing tree. Evidence of the astounding effectiveness of Graviola–and its shocking cover-up–came in fast and furious….

….The National Cancer Institute performed the first scientific research in 1976. The results showed that Graviola’s “leaves and stems were found effective in attacking and destroying malignant cells.” Inexplicably, the results were published in an internal report and never released to the public…

….Since 1976, Graviola has proven to be an immensely potent cancer killer in 20 independent laboratory tests, yet no double-blind clinical trials–the typical benchmark mainstream doctors and journals use to judge a treatment’s value–were ever initiated….

….A study published in the Journal of Natural Products, following a recent study conducted at Catholic University of South Korea stated that one chemical in Graviola was found to selectively kill colon cancer cells at “10,000 times the potency of (the commonly used chemotherapy drug) Adriamycin…”

….The most significant part of the Catholic University of South Korea report is that Graviola was shown to selectively target the cancer cells, leaving healthy cells untouched. Unlike chemotherapy, which indiscriminately targets all actively reproducing cells (such as stomach and hair cells), causing the often devastating side effects of nausea and hair loss in cancer patients.

…A study at Purdue University recently found that leaves from the Graviola tree killed cancer cells among six human cell lines and were especially effective against prostate, pancreatic and lung cancers Seven years of silence broken–it’s finally here!"

Tuesday, 19 November 2013

Glossary Pakistani & Indian Spices (Masala)

  • Spices are the most basic and fundamental ingredients of Pakistani and Indian cuisine. Cooking without some of these spices is almost impossible, and omission of these spices often results in subtle changes in flavour in dishes. It is always good to stock up these spices prior cooking Pakistani and Indian dishes, and if you stock them appropriately they will last long. Often you will find people refer to spices in Urdu, and sometimes it becomes hard to find these spices in English, so we have made it easier for you, below is a list of spices in English with Urdu translation, along with a description, type of flavour, and how to store spices.
  • Carom Seeds (Ajwain)
  • Ajwain seeds are smaller than cumin seeds, and of a light brown khaki colour. They are very fragrant and smell and taste like thyme. Ajwain is closely related to caraway and cumin and is used in many savoury dishes. It is used in Indian cooking both for its flavour and its medical value. Its flavour is similar to that of thyme. Ajwain seeds are often boiled in a little water and the resulting liquid is drunk to settle stomach ailments.
  • Allspice (Kabab Cheene)
  • Allspice appears like a large peppercorn that is brown in colour. Allspice is not a combination of different spices but is produced from the dried berries of the West Indian allspice tree, also known as Jamaican pepper or pimento. It is not a traditional ingredient in Indian cooking, but has come to be used in many pilau, biryani and Mughlai meat and poultry dishes. Allspice has a flavour and aroma similar to that of cardamom, cinnamon and nutmeg.
  • Aniseed or Fennel Seed (Sonf or Saunf)
  • Aniseeds are similar to cumin but are rather a dull greyish colour. The fennel plant is native to the Mediterranean, thou it has been cultivated in India since Ancient times. Aniseed or fennel can safely be substituted one for the other, as they have a similar flavour. They have a sweetish liquorice-like flavour and are used widely in Bengal and Kashmir. Both aniseed and fennel seeds are either gently fried or ground with other spices. They are also often chewed at the end of a meal as an aid to digestion and as a breath sweetener.
  • Asafoetida (Hing)
  • Asafoetida is a yellow mustard powder. This is obtained from the resinous gum of a tropical plant which is closely related to the fennel family. It can be bought from Indian grocers in solid pieces or in powder form. It has quite a powerful smell, but when fried in minute quantities in hot oil with other spices, it imparts a certain distinctive flavour which is an integral part of the strict vegetarian diet of the Brahmins. Asafoetida is used very sparingly because of its very strong flavour. It is never used in recipes for meat and poultry dishes.
  • Bay Leaf (Tej Patta)
  • Western bay leaves are brighter in appearance and are always whole. The bay leaf is not traditional to Indian cooking. It is a common mistranslation, for Western bay leaves are quite different from tej patta, which are the tender leaves obtained from the Cassia tree. In the West, bay leaves obtained from the sweet bay laurel, are more easily available and have become a popular substitute. Bay Leaves have a flavour similar to cinnamon. Western bay leaves also have a stronger flavour than Indian bay leaves. Indian bay leaves can be crumbled easily to blend with other spices.
  • Black Pepper (Kali Mirch)
  • Round black roughly textured seeds. Black pepper comes from the pepper vines grown in the tropical forests of monsoon Asia. The berries are picked when they are green and then dried in the sun to give us the familiar black pepper. Pepper loses its flavour rapidly so it is always advisable to buy whole peppercorns and grind them in a pepper mill as and when required. Pre-ground pepper does nothing to enhance the flavour of a dish.
  • Black Salt (Kala Namak)
  • Black salt is a purple pinkish-gray salt with a pungent smell. It is mined in India & Pakistan and is used in savoury dishes to add tanginess. It is known to relieve intestinal gas and heartburn. The primary spice used in Chaat masala is the black salt.
  • Caraway Seeds (Shahjeera)
  • The seed is about 1/5inch long and tapered at the ends. The hard seed shells have five pale ridges. Caraway Seed is actually the fruit of a biennial herb in the parsley family, known as Carum carvi. Caraway is native to Asia as well as northern and central Europe. First used in antiquity, Caraway has been cultivated in Europe since the middle Ages. Caraway seed is closely related to cumin, but has a milder flavour. Unlike cumin, caraway does not dominate the flavour of the dish in which it is used. The flavour of caraway blends easily with meat.
  • Cardamom (Elaichi)
  • There are two varieties of cardamom pods: brown cardamom known as Badi Elaichi or Moti Elachi and green cardamom referred to as Choti Elaichi. Brown cardamom is larger in size to green cardamom. Good quality cardamom seeds will always appear a rich brownish-black, slightly sticky and have a strong aromatic smell. Cardamom is sold whole or ground by Indian grocers.
  • The cardamom plant is a perennial of the ginger family and grows abundantly in southern India. The ripe cardamom seed pods are dried in the sun before being sold commercially. When a recipe calls for a whole cardamom, the pods should always be opened up slightly to extract the full flavour of the cardamom, for it is the seeds that have the maximum flavour. The same method can also be used in judging the quality of cardamoms. The dark brown variety is used in certain curries, pilaus and biryanis and the inner seeds are often used for making garam masala. The small green variety is used in most curries, pilaus and some sweet dishes. Cardamom has a strong, unique taste, with an intensely aromatic fragrance. Black cardamom has a distinctly more astringent aroma, though not bitter, with coolness similar to mint, though with a different aroma. Ground cardamom is often used in Indian sweets. It is best to grind small quantities at home using a coffee mill. Ready-ground cardamom is not only expensive, but because cardamom loses its natural oil quickly.
  • Chaat Masala
  • Brown powder with a pungent smell, and sour taste it is a very popular spice mix used in many Indian and Pakistani snacks. Chaat Masala has a sweet yet sour flavour. Used in fruit salads, yoghurt based dishes and other Pakistani and Indian snacks.
  • Preparation: The quantity of each spice used is: 2 tbsp cumin seeds, 1 1/2 tsp fennel seeds, 1 tsp mint, 1 tbsp amchur (mango powder), 1 tbsp black salt, 1 tsp cayenne pepper and 1/4 tsp ground ginger. Toast and grind cumin and fennel seeds and combine with remaining ingredients. This mixture can be refrigerated and stored in a jar with a tight fitting lid.
  • Cinnamon (Dhal Chini)
  • Cinnamon sticks are sold in pieces of tree bark, sometimes in a scroll form. The cinnamon sticks used in Indian cooking are different from those used in the West. Indian cinnamon sticks have the texture and feel of tree bark of Cassia tree, which is grown in most tropical countries. True cinnamon sticks, which are in the form of a scroll, are available in most supermarkets and have a much more delicate flavour than Cassia bark. True cinnamon is native to Sri Lanka. Both Cassia tree cinnamon and true cinnamon, however, are from the same botanical family. Cinnamon has a warm and slightly sweet flavour to it. Cinnamon is an essential ingredient in garam masala. It is often used in certain curries, pilaus and biryanis, and is brewed with cloves and aniseed.
  • Cloves (Laung)
  • Dark brown, black in appearance, shaped like a flower head. Cloves are the buds of the dried flower of the clove tree, which is native to southern Asia. They have a strong and distinctive flavour and are an essential ingredient in garam masala. They are also used whole in certain curries, pilaus and biryanis. Whether used whole or ground, cloves should be used in carefully measured quantities as the flavour is rather overpowering. They have a strong and distinctive flavour and are an essential ingredient in garam masala. Cloves should always buy whole, as ground cloves do not contain the essential oil that flavours a dish. Used as an essential ingredient in garam masala. Cloves are highly antiseptic and are often chewed to relieve toothache.
  • Coriander (Dhaniya)
  • Round light brown coloured seeds. Coriander is the single most important spice in Indian cooking. Its mild and slightly sweet flavour blends well with almost all Indian dishes and it controls their basic flavour.  Traditionally, coriander is gently roasted before grinding as this brings out its full flavour as well as making it easier to grind finely. Ground pre-packed coriander, if roasted gently and cooled before storing in airtight containers, will significantly enhance the flavour of dishes.
  • Cumin (Jeera/Zeera)
  • There are two types of varieties: black cumin (kala jeera) and white cumin (safed jeera). Cumin is a pungent and aromatic spice, which is also very powerful. Sometimes black cumin is confused with caraway seeds, which are quite different. Although both widely used, one cannot substituted for the other as they each have their own quite distinctive flavour. Cumin is used whole to flavour the oil before cooking vegetables, pulses and some rice dishes. Ground cumin, because of its powerful flavour, should be used in carefully measured quantities. A better flavour is obtained by gently roasting the seeds before grinding. Ground pre-packed cumin, if roasted and cooled, before storing, will produce more satisfactory results, than if used straight from the packet.
  • Curry Leaves (Curry Patha)
  • These are sold dried or fresh. The leaves are small and shiny and are used in many different ways. Curry leaves are used extensively in southern Indian cooking and are one of the main ingredients in commercially prepared curry powder, especially Madras curry powder. Curry leaf is slightly flavoured like curry powder, but with a strong herb-like aroma and hints of bell pepper and citrus, and a pleasant, mild bitterness. They can be crumbled before being added to a dish or used whole. Alternatively, they can be fried whole in hot oil and then added to the dish. The dried leaves can be stored in a screw-top jar and the fresh ones can be frozen and used straight from the freezer.
  • Dry Mango Powder (Amchur)
  • This is slightly mustardy light brown powder. Small segments of unripe mangoes are dried and the powdered and used in dishes to give a sour and tangy taste in dishes. Dry Mango powder has a sour tangy taste to it yet with subtle mango flavour as well.
  • Dry Fenugreek Leaves (Kasoori Methi)
  • Dry Fenugreek leaves as it is called will be sold in crumbles up leaf form, pale green in colour. Leaves of the fenugreek plant are dried and then used to flavour in Indian dishes. The dried fenugreek leaves have a bitter taste and strong smell, hence careful quantities must be used. These leaves are a good substitute for fresh fenugreek leaves.
  • Fenugreek Seeds (Methi Dana)
  • The seeds are brownish-yellow in colour and rectangular in shape. The fresh green leaves, which are very much like watercress, are used as a vegetable and for stuffing breads. In northern India fenugreek biscuits are a great delicacy. Fenugreek seeds have a slightly bitter flavour and must be used in the specified quantities. They are either fried in hot oil or gently roasted and ground with other spices – each method produces its own distinctive flavour. Whichever method is used, the seeds should not be overdone, or a very bitter flavour will result. Fenugreek is widely used in vegetable, lentil and some fish dishes.
  • Garam Masala
  • Depending on its ingredients this should come in a brown coloured powder. Garam Masala is a combination of hot spices. The word garam signifies heat and masala means a mixture of various spices. Typical recipe uses cinnamon, cardamom, cloves and nutmeg. Garam masala is known to create body heat which helps the body to retain warmth in a cold climate. It is frequently used in northern India cooking where the temperature in winter is significantly lower than in the rest of the country. Garam masala freshly prepared is much more aromatic and has a fuller flavour than ready-packed garam masala. The latter does not have the required aroma and flavour because the main ingredients - cinnamon, cardamom and cloves - lose their essential oils very rapidly. Garam masala is used in many different ways. It is sometimes used together with other spices, or it can be sprinkled on as a condiment at the end of the cooking time. Cardamom, cinnamon and cloves are the main ingredients which govern the taste of the final mixture when ground. These spices are also used whole in pilaus and biryanis and in certain curries and dry-spiced vegetable dishes. The recipe for garam masala can vary a great deal; other spices such as whole black peppercorns, coriander seeds, and cumin seeds may be added to the three basic ingredients.
  • Preparation: The quantity of each spice used is: 2 tbsp cinnamon sticks, broken into small pieces, 1 1/2 tbsp green cardamoms with the skin, 1 tbsp whole cloves and 1/2 a whole nutmeg, broken into pieces for grinding. Heat a cast-iron or other heavy based pan. When the pan is hot, add the above ingredients and reduce heat to low. Stir and roast the ingredients until they release their aroma. Remove from the heat and allow cooling completely; stirring during the first half of the cooling time to prevent them from browning as the pan will remain hot for a while. When completely cool, grind the spices to a fine powder in a coffee mill and store in an air-tight container.
  • Ground Mixed Spice
  • Depending on its ingredients this should come in a brown coloured powder. Ground mixed spice is widely used for baking, desserts, especially apple-based puddings. The mixture always contains Allspice, cinnamon and nutmeg. Often other spices are added to this mixture; such as coriander, cloves, ginger and mace. Ground Mixed Spice will give a warm spicy flavour to sweet dishes.
  • Preparation: Grind the allspice, cinnamon and cloves to a fine powder and mix well with the nutmeg and ginger. Use at once or store in an airtight jar away from light.
  • Dried Ginger (Saunt)
  • This is sold in a pale creamy powder-like form. Dried powdered ginger is often used in-replace of fresh ginger but however the flavour produced is not the same.
  • Mustard Seed (Rai or Sarson)
  • Mustard seeds are about 3mm in diameter, and may be coloured from yellowish white to black. Mustard seed has been used as a spice for many thousands of years. Mustard seeds of the various mustard plants are among the smallest of seeds. They are important spices in many regional cuisines. The seeds can come from three different plants: black mustard (Brassica nigra), brown Indian mustard (B. juncea), and white mustard (B. hirta/Sinapis alba). Mustard Seed's hot, spicy flavour enhances meats, fish, sauces, salad dressings. Brown or black mustard seed is commonly used in Indian cooking. Powdered or crushed mustard is used in pickles and the whole seeds are used to flavour vegetables and pulses, and are fried in hot oil to give a nutty flavour.
  • Onion Seeds also known as Nigella Seeds (Kalonji)
  • Onion seeds are small tiny black seeds. Onion seeds are not actually derived from the onion plant, but because of their close resemblance to actual onion seeds, they are referred to thus. They actually come from the Nigella plant, which is grown in India and the Middle East. Onion seeds have pungent bitter taste and smell. Onion seeds are used whole flavouring pickles and vegetable dishes. They are also used in savoury snacks and Tandori-baked bread, such as Naan or Tandoori Roti. In Assam and Bengal, onion seeds are used along with other whole spices to flavour dhals and fish curries.
  • Paprika (Deghi Mirchi)
  • A brilliant red coloured powder. Indian paprika comes mainly from the Kashmir where this mild and sweet variety of chilli, known as deghi mirchi, is grown extensively. Its brilliant red colour does not indicate the same pungency as the other chillies used in Indian cooking. Paprika has a sweetish spicy flavour. Paprika is primarily used to add that wonderfully rich colour to a dish.
  • Pomegranate Seeds (Anardana)
  • Dark brown sticky pomegranate seeds. Wild pomegranate seeds are taken and dried and used in Indian and Pakistani dishes to add a tangy flavour to dishes. It is mostly used to flavour vegetable and legumes dishes but is also known to be used in Moghul-style meat dishes. Pomegranate seeds posses a bitter and tangy flavour.
  • Poppy Seeds (Khus Khus)
  • The seeds are pale cream, almost white, in appearance. Various kinds of poppy flowers are grown all around the world, but the poppy seeds used in Indian cooking come from the opium poppy, which flourishes in tropical climates. Add a nutty flavour to the dish. Poppy seeds improve texture by thickening it’s the gravy. They should not be substituted for the black poppy seeds used in baking as these impart a bitter flavour to the dish.
  • Red Chilli (Lal Mirch)
  • Red chilli powdered. Red chilli is one of the main spice ingredients of any Indian cooking, used either whole (saboth), crushed (kotivi) or powdered. Red chilli powder is often pure chilli powder and made from any hot red chillies such as jalepeno, and cayenne peppers.
  • Saffron (Kessar or Zafran)
  • Saffron comes in an orangish colour and in very thin strands. Saffron consists of the dried stigma of the saffron crocus flower. Though saffron is grown in most Mediterranean countries, the type used in Indian cooking comes from the foothills of the Himalayas. Saffron is used in Mughlai, Kashmiri and northern Indian cooking to add both colour and flavour to dishes. The long and laborious process of collecting the stigma makes saffron one of the world’s most expensive flavourings. Saffron should always be bought in strands. Powdered saffron is often adulterated and will therefore not impart an authentic flavour. Just a pinch of saffron is enough to flavour any dish. The strands should be soaked in a little hot water or milk for ten to fifteen minutes. Both the infusion and the strands should be used in the dish for maximum flavour. Saffron is used for both sweet and savoury dishes. Do not be tempted to substitute turmeric for saffron, as it has its own distinctive flavour.
  • Sesame Seeds (Til or Thil)
  • Pale creamy coloured flattish oval shaped seeds. Sesame is one of the most important oil seeds in the world. It is native to India, which together with china, is the largest grower and exported of sesame oil to the west. The sesame seed has a nutty flavour. The black variety used in baking in the West is never used in Indian cooking.
  • Star Anise (Badiyan or Chakri Phool or Anas phal)
  • Anise flavoured, star-shaped seed pod of dried fruit, dark brown in colour. Star anise is one of the main ingredients of the five spice powder used in Chinese cuisine. Star anise is known as a digestive aid and to cure colic in babies. Star anise is available in packages in Asian supermarkets. When purchasing star anise, look for whole pieces that aren’t broken. Star anise releases a heady fragrance when added to hot oil. In slow cooked or simmered dishes, star anise is usually added whole (not broken into pieces) and discarded before serving. Occasionally, you may find stir-fry recipes calling for star anise. At home, store star anise in a sealed container in a cool dark place. Properly stored, star anise will last for several months. Discard once the flavour fades.
  • Turmeric (Haldi)
  • A deep yellow golden coloured powder. Turmeric is native to India and it is the turmeric root which is cleaned, boiled, dried and ground to give us the powder. It is closely related to the ginger plant. Renowned for its distinctive pungent flavour turmeric adds colour as well as flavour to the dish. Tumeric aids the digestive system, as does ginger. Turmeric is also used as an antiseptic.


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